FyreZyme

FyreZyme

Low-cost treatment for: large volumes of hazardous-waste, contaminated soils and low contaminant concentration.

How does it Work?

Used in dilute form, FyreZyme adheres to the hydrocarbon substrate and disrupts the molecular structure. The petroleum is rendered less toxic, losing its volatility and ability to burn.

The organic substrate in FyreZyme simultaneously enhances proliferation of already present oleophilic bacteria, which then rapidly bioremediate the modified petroleum product to CO2 and H2O.

Once the substrate is consumed, the enhanced bacterial population continues to consume the petroleum product. After oil is no longer available as food source, the bacterial population restores itself to the normal level through starvation, normal attrition, and resuming their role in the biologic food chain, where they are non-toxic.

Note: The Occupational Safety and Health Labor Standards Division of Department of Labor

“There is no special toxicological concern with the ingredients in (FyreZyme) that would pose a significant health concern with its application…”

The Environmental Protection Agency has established FyreZyme on the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule under Biological Additives

“…which may be used on releases of oil into navigable water …”(By low, such US Government listing does not constitute an approval, certification, authorization, licensing or promotion of this or any other product.) USEPA NCP July 1991

FyreZyme: Summary of Toxicologic Testing in Marine Animals and Mammals
Conclusion:

Test results demonstrate that FyreZyme is a non-toxic to both marine life and mammals. Toxic levels are achieved only with concentrations from 180-3,800 times normal.

FyreZyme is a multifactor bioremediation-enhancing agent, which is highly effective, thorough, simple to use, cost effective and one-toxic. Laboratory bench tests have been confirmed in a field demonstration, conducted and monitored by Mobil Oil’s independent contracting agency. Such “surface” bioremediation, proceeding to non-detect levels in only 14 days, is now being followed by on site utilization of FyreZyme technology. The FyreZyme technology, while scientifically sophisticated, is easily applied for the cleanup of contaminated surface and subsurface soil as well as ground water.

Microbial Biodegradation / Bioremediation:

Biodegradation is the single most important removal mechanism for organic compounds in soil and water systems. Such biodegradation of organics is brought about by biochemical reactions in which the target organic compound is degraded (or oxidized) into CO2, H2O, and biomass through enzyme-catalyzed microbial metabolism. The enzymes are extremely efficient. Under optimum condition, enzymes catalyze reactions at rates up to ten billion times higher than those of comparable reactions without enzymes. Enzymes are characterized as being intracellular or extra cellular, depending on their location.
Extra cellular enzymes which initiate the metabolic (oxidative) process for biodegradation of petroleum product are elaborated by certain microbes. In the first step of the oxidation, these extra cellular enzymes instantaneously break off two-carbon units from saturated hydrocarbons typical of petroleum products. The transformed petroleum molecule is released from the enzyme, which is then freed to react with other petroleum molecules. The two-carbon units from petroleum molecule breakdown are transferred into the microbe for its own metabolic process. FyreZyme provides a rich mixture of such extra cellular enzymes capable of initiating and catalyzing the breakdown of a wide variety of petroleum hydrocarbons, leading to enhanced biodegradation, or “bioremediation”.

Aerobic Bioremediation:

The bioremediation process proceeds at its’ highest rate in an aerobic (oxygen-rich) environment. In the aerobic zone of soil and in water in which dissolved oxygen is in sufficient concentration, differing metabolic groups of microbes may partially degrade a compound and furnish a substrate suitable for continued biodegradation by yet another subset of microbes. Common to all of the microbial degraders is the need for extra cellular enzymes for initial petroleum hydrocarbon breakdown. A surplus of enzymes is provided with FyreZyme toxic or recalcitrant intermediary compounds may be formed during metabolism of some organic compounds, emphasizing the need for complete oxidation.
The continual supply of fresh water to the aerobic bed is vital to success. Water is necessary for metabolism and for oxygen supply as well as for hydrolysis of certain contaminants. Water serves to constantly infuse fresh nutrient medium (FyreZyme) and carry away spent cellular protein that might serve as enzymes inhibitors.

Anaerobic Bioremediation

Under anaerobic condition, some microbes are capable of the breakdown of petroleum product in a similar but slower fashion, utilizing other inorganic substances other than oxygen as the final electron acceptor. FyreZyme contains enzymes elaborated during the anaerobic fermentation process, capable of enhancing anaerobic metabolism of petroleum products. The rate of anaerobic contaminant loss will be monitored as well.

Microbial Growth

While microbes are capable of utilizing petroleum carbon as an energy source and building blocks for their own use, they preferentially utilize simple sugars (glucose). For rapid growth and energy. Other growth factors required by some microbes include amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines. FyreZyme provides a rich source of such simple sugars, amino acids, and other growth factors. This assures rapid growth of soil microbial populations, many of which are also capable of catabolizing petroleum product for energy. Once the glucose energy source is exhausted, those microbes capable of utilizing petroleum for such growth are favored, and they are absolute as well as relative numbers increase preferentially.

The microbial growth phase is characterized by an initial lag phase while DNA and enzyme synthesis develops. The extra cellular enzymes necessary to breakdown organic molecules for microbial growth are readily available in FyreZyme, shortening the lag phase. As soon as the basic requirements for enzyme and DNA production are met, the soil microbe enter a log phase in which exponential growth develops. During the rapid growth phase, microbes are particularly sensitive to adverse conditions and respond will to the nutrients present in FyreZyme. By the continually drain off “spent” medium and adding fresh nutrients, microbial growth is maintained in the exponential growth phase, environmental oxygen, water flow and microbial activity. A positive-feedback closed loop system develops and is perpetuated with strategic environmental manipulation and addition of FyeZyme unique formulation.

Additional FyreZyme Activity

In addition to enhancing microbial metabolism directly, FyreZyme further enhances the cleanup process through co-metabolism an secondary substrate activity. Co-metabolic breakdown occurs as a result of non-target contaminant being in the presence of the high-energy metabolic field created with FyreZyme. Enzymes elaborated during the metabolism of petroleum product are capable of altering non-target organic compounds and transforming them into more readily oxidizable form. As the target contaminant decreases below and critical level, microbial populations decrease, and the reaction may slow or stop. This explains why many venting operations cease to be effective as the contaminant level lowers. By maintaining a rich microbial population with FyreZyme carbon and energy source, even small residues of contaminant continue to be metabolized to acceptable levels or to complete disappearance. This secondary substrate enhancement by FyreZyme allows for low-cost treatment of large volumes of hazardous-waste contaminated soils and low contaminant concentration.

Microbial Growth Factors and Development of Bioremediation Potential:

From this it can be summarized that in order for biodegradation of organic contaminants such as; BTEX components of gasoline and diesel fuel, the following microbial enhancing agents are necessary; each may be rate limiting:

  • Carbon and energy source for microbial growth
  • Macro and micro-nutrients
  • Water in amounts adequate to support metabolism and movement of nutrients through the soil (where appropriate)
  • Oxygen to sustain aerobic metabolic sickle
  • Surfactant/emulsifier activity for maximal penetration
  • Each of these constituents has been tried in isolation or in incomplete combination with the others with moderate success on the rate and completeness of bioremediation.

FyreZyme provides these major enhancing agents in ideal ratios, and has been demonstrated to dramatically increase the speed and totality of petroleum product bioremediation.

FyreZyme Constituents and Production

FyreZyme is produced in a rigorously controlled fermentation of proprietary mix of complex sugars and protein, producing simple sugars, amino acids, and extra cellular

FyreZyme Reference Guide

Containers
5 gallon (4 litres) (#2 recyclable container)
55 gallon drums (non-returnable)
Remediation Timeline
Normally, remediation timeline is 90 to 120 days.
For Diesel @ 5000 – 9000 TPH, add 3 to 4 weeks to remediation schedule.
Application Schedule
General Rule
20% of the FyreZyme mix at weekly intervals
(6.25% solution: 1 gallon FyreZyme / 16 gallons water)
5 Week Duration
The application is accomplished by dividing the total solution mix into five equal amounts and applying 1/5th of the total mix at weekly intervals.
FyreZyme Concentrations
Soil Remediation
Dilution rate baseline: 1 gallon FyreZyme mixed with 16 gallons of water (6.25% solution)
Normally, 1 gallon FyreZyme / 8 cubic yards soil @ less than 10,000 TPH – 200 gallons of FyreZyme per acre (1602.37 yd 3/8)
Depending on the type of contaminates, other potential solution rations (concentration) to remediate 8 cubic yards of soil are: reduced in a rigorously controlled fermentation of proprietary mix of complex sugars and protein, producing simple sugars, amino acids, extra cellular
TPH less than 1,000 TPH of 1,000 – 5,000 TPH of 5,000 – 10,000
4% solution 5% solution 6% solution
Crude oil contaminated soil: 1 gallon FyreZyme / 6 cubic yards soil
Diesels: 500 – 9000 TPH, add 3 to 4 weeks to remediation schedule
Surface Water Remediation
7 ½ gallons of FyreZyme per surface acre of water
Water Remediation (hydrocarbon)
Amount of FyreZyme to be determined only after site specifics have been quantified.
Generally, 1 gallon of FyreZyme per 100 gallons of contaminant in 10,000 gallons water.
Water considerations include:
Crude oil; Hydraulic fluid; Salt or fresh water; TRPH; Effluent water

FyreZyme Applications

FyreZyme Applications

Ideal: Maintain soil moisture at 60% to 80% of field holding capacity by the addition of water.
Oxygenation
Ideal: D.O. = 5.5 – 5.8
Turn soil weekly if needed, spray water if needed.
For deep soil condition: oxygenated water, air injection, spraying, venting etc.
Hydrogen peroxide: use at no more than 0.05%
Generally, spray every 48 hours but not greater than 72 hours, bacteria will go anaerobic without oxygen for 72 hours.
pH
Optimal 7.0
7.5 – 8.0 (viable)
8.0 – 8.5 (viable)
8.5 – 9.0 (High-end, keep check on HPC, may require lowering)
Temperature
Ideal: 20 – 30 C
68 – 86 F
(up to 35 C or 95 F
Other Considerations
Soil porosity Rate of transport of contaminant
Soil type Air and water saturation
Clay content Other soil variables affecting bioremediation
Redox potential

Other Applications for FyreZyme

Cleanup of wood treatments sites
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other by products of industry are difficult degrade, but have been shown to be amenable to co-metabolism as developed with FyreZyme. Once transformed abiotically, the altered PAH intermediate will be more readily biodegraded. An increase in carbon source (sugar) and energy source increases biodegradation of these recalcitrant compounds. An alternation of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic activity through environmental manipulation may assure more complete degradation to non-toxic forms as well.
Pesticides and Insecticides
The co-metabolic pathway and added enzymes may cause transformation of toxic compounds into less-toxic forms and leads to enhancement of natural bioremediation. With detoxifying of these compounds, the microbes in the environment capable of mineralizing them will be enhanced in their rate and completeness of bioremediation. FyreZyme provides both abiotic enzyme source and enhancement of bioremediation via microbial growth.
Urban Lead Sites
FyreZyme bioremediation of effluent contaminated with heavy metal results in rapid precipitation, allowing for less costly recovery by appropriate technology. Under specific circumstances, FyreZyme can be utilized as one component of a treatment “chain” to bioredediate organics, followed by specific chemical recovery of lead and other heavy metals. The treatment “tain” utilizes both biological and abiotic processes to achieve its goals.
Testimonials

John Deere Tractor Agency Bioremediation

On-site treatment of oil/diesel disposal pit area. Contaminated soil excavated, placed on lined berm, treated with FyreZyme in a 4% solution mixed with non-potable water and applied weekly. Moisture or 80% of field holding capacity.

Mobil Site 18-566 TPH & BTEX Results

Abandoned service station site with motor oil waste disposal pit and small amount of desel fuel/gasoline spill residual. Treatment consisted of the application of a 4% FyreZyme aqueous solution on days one and seven, with moisture kept at 20% moisture level (80%) of field holding capacity). Soil turned once a day seven.
Summary: All contaminants levels, TPH, BTEX, and MTBE were reduced to below actionable levels within 14 days. Control = untreated soil, kept at 4% C.

Sonoco Station Biobemediation

FyreZyme Bioremediation at an acive service station site

Contaminated soil excavated, placed on lined berm

FyreZyme 4% (one gallon per 8 cubic yards) applied

Moistureized to 20% (80% of soil holding capacity)

Project completed in 21 days to Ohio state regulatory levels: final tests on day 35 show continued reduction even with low contaminant levels “secondary substrate” activity.

Allied Waste Management Inc.,

Vermilion, Ohio 44089, September 29, 1992

Dear Dr. Meaders,

As president of Allied Waste Management, I commend you on the effectiveness of the bio-remedial enhancer which your company produces known as FyreZyme.

Allied has tested and utilized several different bio-remdial products with various degrees of success. We recently completed a bio-remediation project utilizing FyreZyme. This projuect involved 300 yards of heavy clay gasoline contaminated soil. The contaminated soil exhibited a TPH of approximately 1500 ppm. Five weeks time labatory analysis was obtained. At that time the treated soil exhibited a TPH between 16 ppm an 31 ppm. Needless to say we were very pleased with these results. Out of all the bio-remedial products we have had experience with, FyreZyme is by far the most effective and cost efficient. Please keep me informed of any new products which your firm may come out with. Thank you and I look forward to performing our next bio-remediation project with FyreZyme.

Best Regards, Bryan Hickman, President

Wildlife Rescue Association of British Columbia

5216 Glancarin Dr., Burnaby, B.C. Canada, July 17,1991

Dear Vic:

On June 13, 1991 we admitted a mature Canada Goose which had been oiled in a jet/diesel fuel spill two weeks previously. The goose exhibited characteristic effects of prolonged exposure to this type of fuel mixture. The most prominent sign was a complete loss of feathers on the head and neck. The goose’s constant preening to clean itself resulted in a concentration of the oil in this area. As well, the goose had severe oil burns causing dry, red and inflamed skin with large areas of the skin on the head and the underside of the wings being covered with yellowish, pussy scabs. The eyes were particularly affected with the conjunctive and third eyelids being dry, inflamed and scarred.

On admission, two weeks after the spill, oil was still present on the feathers and especially in the feather quills where the yellowish liquid was visible. The bird was in very poor general condition; it had a high temperature and was very thin, dehydrated and extremely weak. Therefore, we did not want to expose the bird to the usual rigorous and stressful washing procedure used in oil spill rehabilitation. In this case and option was to try the FyreZyme product, not as a washing concentrate but as a spry on treatment.

On June 14the, we used a hand-held spray bottle to apply a 30 degree C solution of approximately 1.5 concentration of FyreZyme. The entire bird was wetted down to the skin with special attention being paid to the feather quills. The bird was not rinsed and was allowed to dry in a warm environment.

The bird was treated at the centre for the secondary effects of the oil and has since made a steady recover. The goose never showed any negative side effects after the application of FyreZyme. After about one week, the smell of the oil was gone and the feather quills

appeared to be clean. After having access to an outdoor pool and with further encouragement to preen. The bird has since regained its waterproofing. The feathers are growing back and we expect the bird to be released to the wild in three to four weeks.

We are pleased with the results of our first experience using FyreZyme, and we will continue to explore its effectiveness in the treatment of oil soaked wildlife.

Yours sincerely, Judith Seigert, Wildlife Care Supervisor

New Orleans, Louisiana

Bench Tests on beach with sand and aggregated seashells contaminated by oil

Treatability Study:
Cell #1 = 4% FyreZyme in moisturized at 20% moisture level (80% of field holding capacity), standard 14 day treatment cycle.
Cell #2 = only moisturized. After trend established, on day 7, Cell #2 subjected to soil washing, two four minute cycles on shaker with 4% FyreZyme to estimate washing potential.
Final Visual Results:
Oiled shells visibly clean after soil washing of control sample on day 7, comparable to results afer 14 days standard bioremediation.
Final Laboratory Results:
Lab Test show at 45% reduction in TPH (418.1) in the first seven days of treatment with FyreZyme. On day 14, the FyreZyme sample demonstrated a 92.5% reduction in TPH. The control sample was washed on day 14 for two four minute cycles in a rotary shaker in a FyreZyme solution and drained.
Conclusions:
  1. Standard FyrZyme treatment with weekly application, maintaining 20% moisture, or 80% of field holding capacity, and ambient oxygenation results in rapid bioremediation of contaminant.
  1. Soil washing with FyreZyme as sole washing agent likewise results in rapid elimination of contaminant.